HELMET & HAT 

  Marshal Helmet   A rigid, bell-shaped helmet. It comprises a quasi-Chinese skullcap as the base and a big  E’zi  (an elaborate helmet’s accessory) in the front. And it is decorated with halberd heads and red tassels on the top and a  Houdou  (a part of ancient helmet) on the back. The helmet has two kinks of colours: gold and silver, and is designed for marshals. For example, Marshal Qi jiguang just wears one in the Act “Scapegoat” of  The Snow Jade Cup .    

Marshal Helmet  A rigid, bell-shaped helmet. It comprises a quasi-Chinese skullcap as the base and a big E’zi (an elaborate helmet’s accessory) in the front. And it is decorated with halberd heads and red tassels on the top and a Houdou (a part of ancient helmet) on the back. The helmet has two kinks of colours: gold and silver, and is designed for marshals. For example, Marshal Qi jiguang just wears one in the Act “Scapegoat” of The Snow Jade Cup.    

  Grand Councilor Scarf    A soft hat. The top is made of four triangular cloths that are pieced together for a whole square. The scarf is cube-shaped when put on someone’s head, with a small white jade in front and a pair of small wings pointing upwards at the back. Colours like purple and blue can be used for this scarf, and its typical pattern are simply designed dragons and vines. If the character wears a coat with a big collar (i.e. the official’s casual wear), then he should put on a matching grand councilor scarf.

Grand Councilor Scarf   A soft hat. The top is made of four triangular cloths that are pieced together for a whole square. The scarf is cube-shaped when put on someone’s head, with a small white jade in front and a pair of small wings pointing upwards at the back. Colours like purple and blue can be used for this scarf, and its typical pattern are simply designed dragons and vines. If the character wears a coat with a big collar (i.e. the official’s casual wear), then he should put on a matching grand councilor scarf.

  Phoenix Crown      A rigid helmet. The fan-shaped crown is inlaid with kingfisher feathers and a phoenix holding beads in their mouth. It is fringed with beams and has tassels on both sides. The crown with five phoenixes is known as “Five-Phoenix Crown”. The crown (no long tassels) worn by the Old Dan (old female roles in Chinese operas) usually has three phoenixes—the biggest one at the frontal center and two smaller ones on the sides, is known as “Old Dan Phoenix Crown”. In addition, some phoenix crowns are decorated with butterflies, thereby known as “Butterfly Embellished Phoenix Crown”. Those butterflies, each hanged with beams, are arranged in four rows: ten in the front row, seven in the second and the third row respectively, and five in the fourth row. Typically, the Phoenix Crown is worn by imperial concubines and noblewomen.

Phoenix Crown   A rigid helmet. The fan-shaped crown is inlaid with kingfisher feathers and a phoenix holding beads in their mouth. It is fringed with beams and has tassels on both sides. The crown with five phoenixes is known as “Five-Phoenix Crown”. The crown (no long tassels) worn by the Old Dan (old female roles in Chinese operas) usually has three phoenixes—the biggest one at the frontal center and two smaller ones on the sides, is known as “Old Dan Phoenix Crown”. In addition, some phoenix crowns are decorated with butterflies, thereby known as “Butterfly Embellished Phoenix Crown”. Those butterflies, each hanged with beams, are arranged in four rows: ten in the front row, seven in the second and the third row respectively, and five in the fourth row. Typically, the Phoenix Crown is worn by imperial concubines and noblewomen.

  Tall Square Scarf      A soft hat. Though similar to the Eight-Trigram Scarf in shape, a tall square scarf is much higher and only uses plain colours. It is rectangular from the front view, hence the name. It sometimes has a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center and generally no ribbons attached. It uses colours such as black, royal blue and olive yellow, and should go with a matching dress. Typically, tall square scarves are usually worn by squires and commoners.

Tall Square Scarf   A soft hat. Though similar to the Eight-Trigram Scarf in shape, a tall square scarf is much higher and only uses plain colours. It is rectangular from the front view, hence the name. It sometimes has a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center and generally no ribbons attached. It uses colours such as black, royal blue and olive yellow, and should go with a matching dress. Typically, tall square scarves are usually worn by squires and commoners.

  Three-pronged Helmet    A rigid helmet, also known as “ Er-Lang Cha ” ( cha , a weapon with forked end in ancient China). The helmet consists of the front and the back parts. The front part is lower than the back, and both parts have a pair of up-tilted corners. Viewing from the front, there is a round warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled by flames and a big velvet ball at the center, and a pair of slender dragons on both sides. Up in the top-right corner is a “tilted corner with beads” decorated with an elephant head and big velvet balls. The back part resembles the front very much, except that its “tilted corner with beads” is ornamented with Chinese flowering crabapples and some strings of beads. A pair of wings pointing upwards is attached to the back part. Besides, the helmet is painted with gold or silver. Niu Jinxin, a character in  The Taoist Tieguan Painting , just wears a three-pronged helmet.

Three-pronged Helmet   A rigid helmet, also known as “Er-Lang Cha” (cha, a weapon with forked end in ancient China). The helmet consists of the front and the back parts. The front part is lower than the back, and both parts have a pair of up-tilted corners. Viewing from the front, there is a round warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled by flames and a big velvet ball at the center, and a pair of slender dragons on both sides. Up in the top-right corner is a “tilted corner with beads” decorated with an elephant head and big velvet balls. The back part resembles the front very much, except that its “tilted corner with beads” is ornamented with Chinese flowering crabapples and some strings of beads. A pair of wings pointing upwards is attached to the back part. Besides, the helmet is painted with gold or silver. Niu Jinxin, a character in The Taoist Tieguan Painting, just wears a three-pronged helmet.

  Jieyuan Scarf  ( Jieyuan : the scholar who won the first place in provincial imperial examinations)     A soft hat, also known as the “scholar scarf”. Though it resembles the  Zhiliao  Scarf except for its flat top and dented sides. This embroidered scarf mainly uses light colours, and is decorated with a pair of  ruyi -wings and ribbons at the back. It is often put on to match coloured dresses. Characters such as students and scholars wear this scarf.

Jieyuan Scarf (Jieyuan: the scholar who won the first place in provincial imperial examinations)   A soft hat, also known as the “scholar scarf”. Though it resembles the Zhiliao Scarf except for its flat top and dented sides. This embroidered scarf mainly uses light colours, and is decorated with a pair of ruyi-wings and ribbons at the back. It is often put on to match coloured dresses. Characters such as students and scholars wear this scarf.

  Pointed Gauze Hat      A rigid helmet. Its full name is “gauze hat with pointed wings” and is also known as “the treacherous hat” because it is usually worn by disloyal officials. It resembles the square gauze hat in shape, except for its pointed wings. “Pointed” and “treacherous” are homophonic in Chinese, hence its two names.

Pointed Gauze Hat   A rigid helmet. Its full name is “gauze hat with pointed wings” and is also known as “the treacherous hat” because it is usually worn by disloyal officials. It resembles the square gauze hat in shape, except for its pointed wings. “Pointed” and “treacherous” are homophonic in Chinese, hence its two names.

  Grand Councilor Marten Hat (  相貂  )   A rigid helmet, also known as Grand Councilor Gauze Hat ( Xiangsha ). The hat comprises the front and the back parts. Its structure is shaped like a ladder from the side view, because the front part is lower than the back. A pair of wings whose ends are slightly up-tilted is attached to the back part. This marten hat has two types, namely black ones and coloured ones. The black grand councilor marten hat is made of black satin whereas the coloured ones is ornamented with patterns. It is worn by the grand councilor, hence the name.

Grand Councilor Marten Hat (相貂)  A rigid helmet, also known as Grand Councilor Gauze Hat (Xiangsha). The hat comprises the front and the back parts. Its structure is shaped like a ladder from the side view, because the front part is lower than the back. A pair of wings whose ends are slightly up-tilted is attached to the back part. This marten hat has two types, namely black ones and coloured ones. The black grand councilor marten hat is made of black satin whereas the coloured ones is ornamented with patterns. It is worn by the grand councilor, hence the name.

  Gauze Hat      A soft black hat, topped with a small ball. The hat is hexagon-shaped when it is put on someone’s head because its body was pieced together by six cloths. Typically, characters such as domestic servants and heroes wear Gauze hats. The colourful embroidered gauze hat is also designed to go with leopard clothes. Besides soft gauze hats, there are hard ones that are categorized as a “rigid helmet”.

Gauze Hat   A soft black hat, topped with a small ball. The hat is hexagon-shaped when it is put on someone’s head because its body was pieced together by six cloths. Typically, characters such as domestic servants and heroes wear Gauze hats. The colourful embroidered gauze hat is also designed to go with leopard clothes. Besides soft gauze hats, there are hard ones that are categorized as a “rigid helmet”.

  Poor Student Scarf    A soft hat.   This scarf resembles  Sanlang Scarf , but it is decorated with neither strips nor black-white triangles. It is worn by poor and wretched students, hence the name.

Poor Student Scarf   A soft hat. This scarf resembles Sanlang Scarf, but it is decorated with neither strips nor black-white triangles. It is worn by poor and wretched students, hence the name.

  Bridge Helmet     A rigid helmet, commonly known as “Half Phoenix Crown”. The helmet looks like a bridge in shape, hence its name -  bridge . There are two types of bridge helmets: big and small. The big ones are worn by imperial concubines, whereas the small ones are usually for the palace maids. In the middle of the big bridge helmets, a big velvet ball is held up by Chinese flowering crabapples, at each side of which stands a phoenix. And there is a pair of dragons heading downwards at both sides of the helmet. In contrast, the small bridge helmet has simpler patterns and is just appended with velvet balls and tassels.

Bridge Helmet  A rigid helmet, commonly known as “Half Phoenix Crown”. The helmet looks like a bridge in shape, hence its name - bridge. There are two types of bridge helmets: big and small. The big ones are worn by imperial concubines, whereas the small ones are usually for the palace maids. In the middle of the big bridge helmets, a big velvet ball is held up by Chinese flowering crabapples, at each side of which stands a phoenix. And there is a pair of dragons heading downwards at both sides of the helmet. In contrast, the small bridge helmet has simpler patterns and is just appended with velvet balls and tassels.

  Nine-Dragon Crown      A rigid helmet, also known as “Jade Cicada Crown”. The crown is fringed with half- ruyi  (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck) or small cloud patterns. There is a round warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled by flames and a big apricot velvet ball at the frontal center. Nine dragons in total are attached to the crown—three pairs dragons at the sides, a pair of coiling dragons, and a pair of dragons heading downwards, hence its name “Nine-Dragon Crown”. There are also some strings of beads and tassels on both sides. Only the emperor can wear this crown.

Nine-Dragon Crown   A rigid helmet, also known as “Jade Cicada Crown”. The crown is fringed with half-ruyi (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck) or small cloud patterns. There is a round warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled by flames and a big apricot velvet ball at the frontal center. Nine dragons in total are attached to the crown—three pairs dragons at the sides, a pair of coiling dragons, and a pair of dragons heading downwards, hence its name “Nine-Dragon Crown”. There are also some strings of beads and tassels on both sides. Only the emperor can wear this crown.

  Prince Golden Crown     A rigid helmet, also known as the “prince helmet”. It comprises the front and the back parts. The front is decorated with big  E’zi  (an elaborate helmet’s accessory), and the back looks like an upturned bell. The top is ornamented with many velvet balls. A pair of long tassels is attached to the crown. Typically, this Golden Crown is worn by the prince or young generals, for example, Lv Bu in  The Interlocking Stratagem .

Prince Golden Crown  A rigid helmet, also known as the “prince helmet”. It comprises the front and the back parts. The front is decorated with big E’zi (an elaborate helmet’s accessory), and the back looks like an upturned bell. The top is ornamented with many velvet balls. A pair of long tassels is attached to the crown. Typically, this Golden Crown is worn by the prince or young generals, for example, Lv Bu in The Interlocking Stratagem.

  Imperial Flat Crown     A rigid helmet. This crown, worn by the Chinese emperor, resembles the marshal helmet in looks. The major difference is that the crown is topped by a yellow satin rectangular panel which is about one foot long and four inches wide. The panel has patterns of sun, moon and stars, and is appended with strings of beads in front and behind and with two long tassels at the sides. A short cylinder based on a skullcap is set to hold up that panel. Besides the Chinese emperor, the Jade Emperor and King of Hell (both are the characters from Chinese mythology) wear Imperial Flat Crown. 

Imperial Flat Crown  A rigid helmet. This crown, worn by the Chinese emperor, resembles the marshal helmet in looks. The major difference is that the crown is topped by a yellow satin rectangular panel which is about one foot long and four inches wide. The panel has patterns of sun, moon and stars, and is appended with strings of beads in front and behind and with two long tassels at the sides. A short cylinder based on a skullcap is set to hold up that panel. Besides the Chinese emperor, the Jade Emperor and King of Hell (both are the characters from Chinese mythology) wear Imperial Flat Crown. 

  Chief Commander Helmet    A rigid helmet. It resembles a hat upside down, with an arrow head atop. It is mainly painted by gold, and only worn by the chief commander.

Chief Commander Helmet   A rigid helmet. It resembles a hat upside down, with an arrow head atop. It is mainly painted by gold, and only worn by the chief commander.

  Monk Hat    A soft hat, shaped like a saddle. It is also known as “goose hat”, because the hat’s taller front top makes it look like a goose head. These black hats are only worn by monks. Besides soft monk hats, there are rigid ones which categorized as a “rigid helmet”.

Monk Hat   A soft hat, shaped like a saddle. It is also known as “goose hat”, because the hat’s taller front top makes it look like a goose head. These black hats are only worn by monks. Besides soft monk hats, there are rigid ones which categorized as a “rigid helmet”.

  Marquis Hat    A rigid helmet. It is square-shaped with a flat top. There is a round warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled by flames, a big apricot velvet ball, and a pair of slender dragons at the frontal center. A pair of wide wings with bullion fringes is fixed to the hat. Typically, it is worn by people who have been conferred a rank of nobility, i.e. marquis. If the marquis has military power, then his hat should have an additional halberd head atop (called as “ Taiding ”), the same as the one worn by Liang Ji in  Joys of the Fishermen .

Marquis Hat   A rigid helmet. It is square-shaped with a flat top. There is a round warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled by flames, a big apricot velvet ball, and a pair of slender dragons at the frontal center. A pair of wide wings with bullion fringes is fixed to the hat. Typically, it is worn by people who have been conferred a rank of nobility, i.e. marquis. If the marquis has military power, then his hat should have an additional halberd head atop (called as “Taiding”), the same as the one worn by Liang Ji in Joys of the Fishermen.

   Fenyang    Hat      A rigid helmet, also known as “ Wenyang  hat”. It resembles the gold stirrup hat ( Jintadeng ) in looks, but it adds a pair of  ruiyi -wings. It is said that the hat was first worn by Guo Ziyi, the Prince of  Fenyang  (a place in China’s Shanxi Province), in  The Bed Covered by Tablets , hence the name.

Fenyang Hat   A rigid helmet, also known as “Wenyang hat”. It resembles the gold stirrup hat (Jintadeng) in looks, but it adds a pair of ruiyi-wings. It is said that the hat was first worn by Guo Ziyi, the Prince of Fenyang (a place in China’s Shanxi Province), in The Bed Covered by Tablets, hence the name.

  Short Square Scarf      A soft hat. The short square scarf resembles the grand councilor scarf, except that it is all-black and slightly shorter. It has a pair of ribbons at the back and a small white jade rectangular ornament.  Chou  (the term for male clown roles in  Kunqu ) characters wear this scarf.

Short Square Scarf   A soft hat. The short square scarf resembles the grand councilor scarf, except that it is all-black and slightly shorter. It has a pair of ribbons at the back and a small white jade rectangular ornament. Chou (the term for male clown roles in Kunqu) characters wear this scarf.

   Bizheng    Scarf      A soft hat, also known as “Bridge Scarf” ( qiaoliang jin ). Though similar to the Eight-Trigram Scarf in shape, the  Bizheng  Scarf adds two slightly stiff square cloth respectively in the front and the back. It has a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center and a pair of ribbons attached to the back. It mainly uses light colours, and its embroidered patterns match light coloured dresses perfectly. Pan Bizheng, a character in  The Jade Hairpin , just wears this type of scarf, hence the name.

Bizheng Scarf   A soft hat, also known as “Bridge Scarf” (qiaoliang jin). Though similar to the Eight-Trigram Scarf in shape, the Bizheng Scarf adds two slightly stiff square cloth respectively in the front and the back. It has a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center and a pair of ribbons attached to the back. It mainly uses light colours, and its embroidered patterns match light coloured dresses perfectly. Pan Bizheng, a character in The Jade Hairpin, just wears this type of scarf, hence the name.

  Taoist Priestess Scarf      A soft hat, also known as “Miaochang Scarf” for it is worn by Chen Miaochang, a character in  The Jade Hairpin . The top is made of two ladder-shaped satin cloths. A pair of ribbons embroidered with the word “Buddhism” in Chinese is attached to the hat on both sides. The back consists of six light yellow or white oval cloths, with the word “Buddhism” in Chinese at the center. The hat is decorated with yellow bullion fringes and two shorter ribbons at bottom. It is worn by Taoist priestess, hence the name.

Taoist Priestess Scarf   A soft hat, also known as “Miaochang Scarf” for it is worn by Chen Miaochang, a character in The Jade Hairpin. The top is made of two ladder-shaped satin cloths. A pair of ribbons embroidered with the word “Buddhism” in Chinese is attached to the hat on both sides. The back consists of six light yellow or white oval cloths, with the word “Buddhism” in Chinese at the center. The hat is decorated with yellow bullion fringes and two shorter ribbons at bottom. It is worn by Taoist priestess, hence the name.

  Judge Hat      A rigid helmet. It resembles square gauze hat in looks. There is a round warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled flame at the frontal center and a big red velvet ball atop. It also has a pair of wings pointing upwards is in the behind, with other ornaments such as beads, bats and velvet balls. It is commonly seen in red or black. Only judges and the like in Chinese mythologies wear this hat. For example, Zhong Kui just wears a judge hat in the Act “The marriage of Zhongkui’s younger sister” of  Happy Endings for Everyone .

Judge Hat   A rigid helmet. It resembles square gauze hat in looks. There is a round warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled flame at the frontal center and a big red velvet ball atop. It also has a pair of wings pointing upwards is in the behind, with other ornaments such as beads, bats and velvet balls. It is commonly seen in red or black. Only judges and the like in Chinese mythologies wear this hat. For example, Zhong Kui just wears a judge hat in the Act “The marriage of Zhongkui’s younger sister” of Happy Endings for Everyone.

  Tail Scarf (  尾子巾  )     A soft hat, also known as “duck-tail scarf”. It resembles the  Zhiliao  Scarf in looks, and it only uses plain colours. The two-inch height silk fringes around the top of the hat makes it look like an open fan, just like the duck’s tail. That’s why it is named as “tail scarf” or “duck-tail scarf”. There is a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center. It mainly uses colours like royal blue and olive yellow, and usually go with dresses in plain colour.

Tail Scarf (尾子巾)  A soft hat, also known as “duck-tail scarf”. It resembles the Zhiliao Scarf in looks, and it only uses plain colours. The two-inch height silk fringes around the top of the hat makes it look like an open fan, just like the duck’s tail. That’s why it is named as “tail scarf” or “duck-tail scarf”. There is a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center. It mainly uses colours like royal blue and olive yellow, and usually go with dresses in plain colour.

  Dwarf Scarf      A soft hat. Its style is similar to a felt hat. It is made of black satin and black fine cloth, topped with silk tassels. The dwarf scarf is well-known for being worn by Wu Dalang, a major character in  The Gallant Swordsman .     

Dwarf Scarf   A soft hat. Its style is similar to a felt hat. It is made of black satin and black fine cloth, topped with silk tassels. The dwarf scarf is well-known for being worn by Wu Dalang, a major character in The Gallant Swordsman.     

  Tiger Head Helmet    A rigid helmet. It comprises two parts, namely  E’zi  (an elaborate helmet’s accessory) in the front and a tiger head (without lower lip, commonly known as “tiger head shell”) in the behind. The forefront is embroidered with the Chinese character “King” (Chinese:王), and the back is decorated with tiger skin pattern. This helmet is the crown for the warriors. For example, the character named as “Tiger” just wears one in  The Taoist Tieguan Painting

Tiger Head Helmet   A rigid helmet. It comprises two parts, namely E’zi (an elaborate helmet’s accessory) in the front and a tiger head (without lower lip, commonly known as “tiger head shell”) in the behind. The forefront is embroidered with the Chinese character “King” (Chinese:王), and the back is decorated with tiger skin pattern. This helmet is the crown for the warriors. For example, the character named as “Tiger” just wears one in The Taoist Tieguan Painting

  Lotus-Leaf Hat      A rigid helmet. It comprises the front and the back parts. Viewing from the font, the hat is fringed with half- ruyi  (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck) or small cloud patterns. There is a round warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled flame and a big blue velvet ball at the frontal center. It has a slender dragon on either side and other ornaments such as velvet balls, sea patterns and small dragons, topped by a rigid lotus-leaf-shaped ornament. The back part is slightly higher, and it is decorated with dragons and bats. A pair of wings pointing upwards and some beats and velvet balls are attached to this part. The hat’s body is covered by gold or silver. Qin Qiong wears a lotus-leaf hat in  The Kylin Pavilion .

Lotus-Leaf Hat   A rigid helmet. It comprises the front and the back parts. Viewing from the font, the hat is fringed with half-ruyi (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck) or small cloud patterns. There is a round warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity) encircled flame and a big blue velvet ball at the frontal center. It has a slender dragon on either side and other ornaments such as velvet balls, sea patterns and small dragons, topped by a rigid lotus-leaf-shaped ornament. The back part is slightly higher, and it is decorated with dragons and bats. A pair of wings pointing upwards and some beats and velvet balls are attached to this part. The hat’s body is covered by gold or silver. Qin Qiong wears a lotus-leaf hat in The Kylin Pavilion.

  Square Gauze Hat      A rigid helmet. Its full name is “gauze hat with square wings” and is also known as “the loyal hat”. It comprises the front and back parts. Its structure is shaped like a ladder from the side view, because the front part is lower than the back. The forefront and the top of the back part are arched. A pair of wings embroidered with the warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity) pattern is attached to both sides. The wings may be brushed by gold or silver powder. The square gauze hat worn by young men ( Sheng ) has a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center. Typically, it is the loyal officials who wear square gauze hats because the word “square” in Chinese also means “upright” and “impartial”.

Square Gauze Hat   A rigid helmet. Its full name is “gauze hat with square wings” and is also known as “the loyal hat”. It comprises the front and back parts. Its structure is shaped like a ladder from the side view, because the front part is lower than the back. The forefront and the top of the back part are arched. A pair of wings embroidered with the warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity) pattern is attached to both sides. The wings may be brushed by gold or silver powder. The square gauze hat worn by young men (Sheng) has a small white rectangular jade ornament at the frontal center. Typically, it is the loyal officials who wear square gauze hats because the word “square” in Chinese also means “upright” and “impartial”.

  General Scarf      A rigid helmet. The general scarf looks like the scholar scarf, and it has no wings but has ribbons embroidered with the Chinese character “ shou ” (meaning “longevity”) in black. It is fringed with half- ruyi  (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck), and decorated with an oval bead surrounded flames at the frontal center as well as the chili pepper decoration atop. A pair of coiling dragons is attached to both sides, and a big luminous pearl that is carried by a pair of dragons is fixed to the chili-decoration. A piece of cloth embroidered with round warped- shou  and flowers is sewn on to the scarf from the back. Typically, this scarf is worn by generals.

General Scarf   A rigid helmet. The general scarf looks like the scholar scarf, and it has no wings but has ribbons embroidered with the Chinese character “shou” (meaning “longevity”) in black. It is fringed with half-ruyi (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck), and decorated with an oval bead surrounded flames at the frontal center as well as the chili pepper decoration atop. A pair of coiling dragons is attached to both sides, and a big luminous pearl that is carried by a pair of dragons is fixed to the chili-decoration. A piece of cloth embroidered with round warped-shou and flowers is sewn on to the scarf from the back. Typically, this scarf is worn by generals.

  Young Scholar Scarf      A soft hat, also known as “Young Men scarf”. It resembles the  Zhiliao  Scarf except for the pair of rigid  ruyi -ornament fixed to the top of scarf. This embroidered scarf mainly uses light colours and is decorated with a pair of ribbons. It is often put on to match coloured dresses. Characters such as students and scholars wear this scarf.

Young Scholar Scarf   A soft hat, also known as “Young Men scarf”. It resembles the Zhiliao Scarf except for the pair of rigid ruyi-ornament fixed to the top of scarf. This embroidered scarf mainly uses light colours and is decorated with a pair of ribbons. It is often put on to match coloured dresses. Characters such as students and scholars wear this scarf.

   Zhiliao    Scarf   A soft hat, also known as the “Stick Scarf” (bang zhu jin). This square hat has a pair of autumn-leave-shaped wings pointing upwards and two ribbons on the back. It mainly uses red or green, and go with coloured dresses. Young and middle-aged male characters that belong to the  Chou  (the term for male clown roles in  Kunqu ) wear  Zhiliao  Scarf.

Zhiliao Scarf  A soft hat, also known as the “Stick Scarf” (bang zhu jin). This square hat has a pair of autumn-leave-shaped wings pointing upwards and two ribbons on the back. It mainly uses red or green, and go with coloured dresses. Young and middle-aged male characters that belong to the Chou (the term for male clown roles in Kunqu) wear Zhiliao Scarf.

  Round Gauze Hat    A rigid helmet. Its full name is “gauze hat with round wings” and is also known as “dwarf hat”. It resembles the square gauze hat in shape in shape, except for the center dent atop.

Round Gauze Hat   A rigid helmet. Its full name is “gauze hat with round wings” and is also known as “dwarf hat”. It resembles the square gauze hat in shape in shape, except for the center dent atop.

  Straw Hat Brim      A soft hat. It is made of a straw hat removed the crown, i.e. the brim of a straw hat, hence the name. The brim is usually covered with royal blue or light yellow satin cloth which is embroidered with round or long warped- shou  (a Chinese character meaning longevity). Both its inner and outer edges are trimmed with coloured-cloth. Male characters and female characters wear different straw hat brims, and the brims for women are designed smaller than the male’s. Typically, straw hat brims are worn by fishermen and fisherwomen.

Straw Hat Brim   A soft hat. It is made of a straw hat removed the crown, i.e. the brim of a straw hat, hence the name. The brim is usually covered with royal blue or light yellow satin cloth which is embroidered with round or long warped-shou (a Chinese character meaning longevity). Both its inner and outer edges are trimmed with coloured-cloth. Male characters and female characters wear different straw hat brims, and the brims for women are designed smaller than the male’s. Typically, straw hat brims are worn by fishermen and fisherwomen.