服饰

  The Suit of Lined Jacket and TrouserCostume . It has a mandarin collar with six buttons on the right ( dajin ). Either the front or the back has a piece of smooth cloth (i.e. “horse face”), and the rest part of the jacket is pleated. The whole suit is trimmed with coloured cloth and embroidered with peony, chrysanthemum and other exquisite patterns. It is mainly made of light-coloured crepe satin. Besides the most common varied-coloured trousers, red and black trousers are also available.

The Suit of Lined Jacket and TrouserCostume. It has a mandarin collar with six buttons on the right (dajin). Either the front or the back has a piece of smooth cloth (i.e. “horse face”), and the rest part of the jacket is pleated. The whole suit is trimmed with coloured cloth and embroidered with peony, chrysanthemum and other exquisite patterns. It is mainly made of light-coloured crepe satin. Besides the most common varied-coloured trousers, red and black trousers are also available.

 
  Long Handkerchief      Also known as “Long Coloured Waist Sash” ( Hua Yao jin ). This sash is over ten feet long and about one foot wide, embroidered with patterns of flowers, plants, Chinese frets and  ruyi -heads. It is mainly made of light-coloured crepe satin or silk. Characters such as the maid often ties this long handkerchief around her waist.

Long Handkerchief   Also known as “Long Coloured Waist Sash” (Hua Yao jin). This sash is over ten feet long and about one foot wide, embroidered with patterns of flowers, plants, Chinese frets and ruyi-heads. It is mainly made of light-coloured crepe satin or silk. Characters such as the maid often ties this long handkerchief around her waist.

 
  Waistcoat Costume.   It is first named “ bijian ” in Ming dynasty and “ majia ” in Qing dynasty. Men and women have different types of waistcoat.  The men’s waistcoat is a long rob reaching to the feet, but without sleeves. It has a distinctive Chinese jacket with buttons down the front, i.e.  duijin . There are various types of waistcoats, but none of them is embroidered with floral patterns. It is generally worn by old squires, such as Chen Zuiling in  The Peony Pavilion .  The women’s waistcoat also has a  duijin  that is edged with coloured-silk and embellished with a pair of  ruyi  (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck). The female role typically wears a light-coloured waistcoat, the one like Pan Jinlian wears in the Act “Flirting with husband’s brother” in  The Gallant Swordsman . Old women roles wear plain waistcoats without the pair of  ruyi -ornament. Besides, there are also short waistcoat for women distinguished by their mandarin collar and the Chinese clothing style with buttons on the right, i.e.  dajin .

Waistcoat Costume.  It is first named “bijian” in Ming dynasty and “majia” in Qing dynasty. Men and women have different types of waistcoat.

The men’s waistcoat is a long rob reaching to the feet, but without sleeves. It has a distinctive Chinese jacket with buttons down the front, i.e. duijin. There are various types of waistcoats, but none of them is embroidered with floral patterns. It is generally worn by old squires, such as Chen Zuiling in The Peony Pavilion.

The women’s waistcoat also has a duijin that is edged with coloured-silk and embellished with a pair of ruyi (an S-shaped jade ornament symbolizing good luck). The female role typically wears a light-coloured waistcoat, the one like Pan Jinlian wears in the Act “Flirting with husband’s brother” in The Gallant Swordsman. Old women roles wear plain waistcoats without the pair of ruyi-ornament. Besides, there are also short waistcoat for women distinguished by their mandarin collar and the Chinese clothing style with buttons on the right, i.e. dajin.

 
   
  
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     Pei    clothes for emperors and nobility.   It has symmetrical opening with long collar band, as well as wide collar and water sleeves. Motifs of dragon, flowers and cranes and the Chinese character 寿(shou) are rather familiar. Empresses, imperial concubines and noblewomen all wear nupei. Nupei has floral motifs with a knee length, and looks much brighter than nanpei. Hence nupei is also called Xiapei( pei of the twilight )

Pei   clothes for emperors and nobility.   It has symmetrical opening with long collar band, as well as wide collar and water sleeves. Motifs of dragon, flowers and cranes and the Chinese character 寿(shou) are rather familiar. Empresses, imperial concubines and noblewomen all wear nupei. Nupei has floral motifs with a knee length, and looks much brighter than nanpei. Hence nupei is also called Xiapei( pei of the twilight )

 
   
  
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     Paixukai   has a shape of vest with a shuanjian ( a rebato-like attachment). It has symmetrical opening with long collar band,round collars. Tuanhua (circular floral motif) appear in the front and on the shoulders. The garment has side seams left open with crepine attached to the lower edges。Paisukai is often worn by young people who know martial arts. Lv Bu wears paixukai in the scene of  Diao Chan at Her Toilette  from The Interlocked Stratagems.

Paixukai  has a shape of vest with a shuanjian ( a rebato-like attachment). It has symmetrical opening with long collar band,round collars. Tuanhua (circular floral motif) appear in the front and on the shoulders. The garment has side seams left open with crepine attached to the lower edges。Paisukai is often worn by young people who know martial arts. Lv Bu wears paixukai in the scene of Diao Chan at Her Toilette from The Interlocked Stratagems.

  The Pair of Red Robes (Men and Women)  Costume .   The pair of is distinguished by its embroidered patterns like flowers in round frame, Chinese frets and rattans. Typically, officials and young ladies will wear red robes when they get married or have reunion. For example, Zhao Chong and Gui Zhi wear a pair of read robe in  The Story of Selling Horses .

The Pair of Red Robes (Men and Women)  Costume. The pair of is distinguished by its embroidered patterns like flowers in round frame, Chinese frets and rattans. Typically, officials and young ladies will wear red robes when they get married or have reunion. For example, Zhao Chong and Gui Zhi wear a pair of read robe in The Story of Selling Horses.

 
  Armour   Costume worn by generals, also known as “protective clothing” ( jiayi ). The slightly wide cloth tied around the belly is called “ kaodu ” (literally meaning “the central part of the armour suit”), and the cloth covering either leg is called “ kaotui ” (literally meaning “the leg-part of the armour suit). This armour suit is covered with embroidered patterns symbolizing thin metal plates that are used in the real armour. If flags are attached to the back, then the suit is called “hard armour” or “hard  kao ”; otherwise, it is called “soft armour” or “soft  kao ”. Men and women wear different types of armour.   

Armour  Costume worn by generals, also known as “protective clothing” (jiayi). The slightly wide cloth tied around the belly is called “kaodu” (literally meaning “the central part of the armour suit”), and the cloth covering either leg is called “kaotui” (literally meaning “the leg-part of the armour suit). This armour suit is covered with embroidered patterns symbolizing thin metal plates that are used in the real armour. If flags are attached to the back, then the suit is called “hard armour” or “hard kao”; otherwise, it is called “soft armour” or “soft kao”. Men and women wear different types of armour.   

 
  Small Red Waistcoat  Costume,   also known as “red livery for solders” ( hong zu kan ). It has a round neck and a distinctive Chinese jacket buttons down the front (i.e.  duijin ). It is embroidered with flowers in round frame and its matching frets, ancient coins and dragons. It is made of red satin and edged with coloured-cloth. The inside surface which is made of a yellow cloth with black tiger-skin pattern can be turned outwards as the outside surface – in other words, the waistcoat is a reversible. The small red waistcoat is usually worn by walk-on roles, such as Xi Xiaojun in  The Snow Jade Cup  and Da Gui in  The Nine-Lotus Lattern .

Small Red Waistcoat  Costume,  also known as “red livery for solders” (hong zu kan). It has a round neck and a distinctive Chinese jacket buttons down the front (i.e. duijin). It is embroidered with flowers in round frame and its matching frets, ancient coins and dragons. It is made of red satin and edged with coloured-cloth. The inside surface which is made of a yellow cloth with black tiger-skin pattern can be turned outwards as the outside surface – in other words, the waistcoat is a reversible. The small red waistcoat is usually worn by walk-on roles, such as Xi Xiaojun in The Snow Jade Cup and Da Gui in The Nine-Lotus Lattern.

 
  Eunuch Robe  Costume,   worn by eunuchs. There are two types of eunuch robes: small and big (not referring to the size, but the wearer’s importance).  The small one is distinguished by its slanting collar and buttons on the right ( dajin ). It comprises the upper part ( shagnyi ) and the lower part ( xiajiao ). The hem of the lower part is slightly wider than the upper’s. The cuffs and waist part also have about three-inch wide helms. All the helms are embellished with patterns of frets and dragons. There are dragons in round-frame that is seven to eight inches in diameter on the front, the back and sleeves, respectively. Characters like the four eunuchs wear the small ones in  The Hall of Eternal Youth .  The big robe is marked by round neck with trimmed collar. Its bottom parts are embroidered with patterns of sea waves, slender dragons, or dragons in round frame. Other details are similar to those of small eunuch robes. The big type is worn by the eunuch supervisor or the eunuchs with names in the play.

Eunuch Robe  Costume,  worn by eunuchs. There are two types of eunuch robes: small and big (not referring to the size, but the wearer’s importance).

The small one is distinguished by its slanting collar and buttons on the right (dajin). It comprises the upper part (shagnyi) and the lower part (xiajiao). The hem of the lower part is slightly wider than the upper’s. The cuffs and waist part also have about three-inch wide helms. All the helms are embellished with patterns of frets and dragons. There are dragons in round-frame that is seven to eight inches in diameter on the front, the back and sleeves, respectively. Characters like the four eunuchs wear the small ones in The Hall of Eternal Youth.

The big robe is marked by round neck with trimmed collar. Its bottom parts are embroidered with patterns of sea waves, slender dragons, or dragons in round frame. Other details are similar to those of small eunuch robes. The big type is worn by the eunuch supervisor or the eunuchs with names in the play.

 
  Guan yi   theatrical clothing for officials, it has rounded necklines and a curved crossover closing tied on the right. It looks similar to mang, but has no embroidery in the fabric. On the back and front chest are Buzi (rank badge for officials) 30cm long and 28cm wide. Buzi has black satin as the background hemmed with floral motifs and geometrical patterns. The upper part of buzi has embroidered sea waves or half of the sun. Birds and beasts are presented in the middle, such as phoenix, peacocks, cranes, dragons, qilins, and leopards. Cloud-shaped motifs are filled with space.  The motifs are embroidered with golden or silver threads. Birds in Buzi suggest the rank non-military, and beasts military. The colors of Guanyi, often maroon, purple, blue, are good indicators for the official ranks. The extensions of the robe have a contrasting color, sometimes full of embroidery. Guanyi fabric is satin or tapestry satin. Black Guanyi, or qingsu, has no buzi, and is often worn by menguan (official in service but out of ranking system). There are different types of Guanyi for diffenrent genders. Guanyi for females are shorter with no extensions in the back piece. it is usually red or light olive. The latter is often worn by senior Dan role of high status.

Guan yi  theatrical clothing for officials, it has rounded necklines and a curved crossover closing tied on the right. It looks similar to mang, but has no embroidery in the fabric. On the back and front chest are Buzi (rank badge for officials) 30cm long and 28cm wide. Buzi has black satin as the background hemmed with floral motifs and geometrical patterns. The upper part of buzi has embroidered sea waves or half of the sun. Birds and beasts are presented in the middle, such as phoenix, peacocks, cranes, dragons, qilins, and leopards. Cloud-shaped motifs are filled with space.  The motifs are embroidered with golden or silver threads. Birds in Buzi suggest the rank non-military, and beasts military. The colors of Guanyi, often maroon, purple, blue, are good indicators for the official ranks. The extensions of the robe have a contrasting color, sometimes full of embroidery. Guanyi fabric is satin or tapestry satin. Black Guanyi, or qingsu, has no buzi, and is often worn by menguan (official in service but out of ranking system). There are different types of Guanyi for diffenrent genders. Guanyi for females are shorter with no extensions in the back piece. it is usually red or light olive. The latter is often worn by senior Dan role of high status.

 
   
  
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   Chafang yi    also named duantiao or chayi.  It gains its name from the scene  teahouse (chafang)  from  the Searching for Father  where it was worn by bartender. More details are under the item of duantiao.

Chafang yi   also named duantiao or chayi.  It gains its name from the scene teahouse (chafang) from the Searching for Father where it was worn by bartender. More details are under the item of duantiao.

 
   
  
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     Daokanjian   Vests for Taoists.  It has symmetrical opening with long collar band and black collar. It is a patchwork from diamond-shaped cloth of all colors including white yellow blue and black. The vest is down to knees, and worn by Taoists as well as Buddhists on the stage, such as the Monk Se Kong in excerpt  Yearning for the Secular World  from  the sea of sins .

Daokanjian  Vests for Taoists.  It has symmetrical opening with long collar band and black collar. It is a patchwork from diamond-shaped cloth of all colors including white yellow blue and black. The vest is down to knees, and worn by Taoists as well as Buddhists on the stage, such as the Monk Se Kong in excerpt Yearning for the Secular World from the sea of sins.

  Short Coat  Costume.  It is also known as “fighting coat”, “leopard coat” and “hero coat” because it is worn by swordsmen, righteous men and people like Robin Hood. This Chinese-style coat has a big collar and tight sleeves. A two-layer pleated silk narrow cloth is sewn onto the coat’s bottom.

Short Coat  Costume. It is also known as “fighting coat”, “leopard coat” and “hero coat” because it is worn by swordsmen, righteous men and people like Robin Hood. This Chinese-style coat has a big collar and tight sleeves. A two-layer pleated silk narrow cloth is sewn onto the coat’s bottom.

 
   Xizi   Costume.   It refers to the long gown with a slanting collar that is everyday wear for commoners. There are “colourful  xizi ” and “plain  xizi ”, and different types of  xizi  are designed for men and women. In other words,  Xizi  is categorized according to sex and color.  The Men’s  xizi  has a large slanting collar and is slit high to the crotch on both sides. It may be embroidered with patterns of peony, chrysanthemum butterflies and birds. Its slanting collar is embroidered with small frets, flowers and rattans, and either sleeve is embroidered with a flower. The double white-silk sleeves ( shuixiu , literally meaning “water-sleeves”) are also attached to  xizi . Besides, the “colourful  xizi ” worn by young men ( xiaosheng ) uses varied colours, just as the one worn by Pan Bizheng in  The Jade Hairpin.    Unlike the colorful  xizi , the plain one does not have embroidered patterns. Colors like red, purple, blue, black and olive yellow are always used for plain  xizi . The black xizi is mainly worn by poor students. Since it is often worn inside the royal members’ ceremonial robes ( mang ), officials’ robes ( guanyi ), and informal clothes ( pei ), and thus the plain  xizi  is also called “ chen xizi ” which means the  xizi  is worn as underclothes.  Women’s colourful xizi is also known as the “ Qingyi xizi ”, literally meaning the  xizi  worn by  Qingyi  (i.e. decent women roles). This type of  xizi  is distinguished by its mandarin collar with embroidered floral patterns, and it is used as everyday wear for  Qingyi .

Xizi  Costume.  It refers to the long gown with a slanting collar that is everyday wear for commoners. There are “colourful xizi” and “plain xizi”, and different types of xizi are designed for men and women. In other words, Xizi is categorized according to sex and color.

The Men’s xizi has a large slanting collar and is slit high to the crotch on both sides. It may be embroidered with patterns of peony, chrysanthemum butterflies and birds. Its slanting collar is embroidered with small frets, flowers and rattans, and either sleeve is embroidered with a flower. The double white-silk sleeves (shuixiu, literally meaning “water-sleeves”) are also attached to xizi. Besides, the “colourful xizi” worn by young men (xiaosheng) uses varied colours, just as the one worn by Pan Bizheng in The Jade Hairpin.

Unlike the colorful xizi, the plain one does not have embroidered patterns. Colors like red, purple, blue, black and olive yellow are always used for plain xizi. The black xizi is mainly worn by poor students. Since it is often worn inside the royal members’ ceremonial robes (mang), officials’ robes (guanyi), and informal clothes (pei), and thus the plain xizi is also called “chen xizi” which means the xizi is worn as underclothes.

Women’s colourful xizi is also known as the “Qingyi xizi”, literally meaning the xizi worn by Qingyi (i.e. decent women roles). This type of xizi is distinguished by its mandarin collar with embroidered floral patterns, and it is used as everyday wear for Qingyi.

 
  Kungfu Coat  Costume.   It is a black jacket with round neck and small cuffs. It has buttons on the right ( dajin ) and a slit at the sides. There are white coil buttons down the front and along the edges. It is worn by guards, heroes and other characters with Kungfu, for example, Wu Song in  The Gallant Swordsman  and four “little tigers” in  The Kylin Pavilion .

Kungfu Coat  Costume.  It is a black jacket with round neck and small cuffs. It has buttons on the right (dajin) and a slit at the sides. There are white coil buttons down the front and along the edges. It is worn by guards, heroes and other characters with Kungfu, for example, Wu Song in The Gallant Swordsman and four “little tigers” in The Kylin Pavilion.

 
  Archer Robe  Costume,   a flimsy military uniform. There two types of arrow robes: plain and coloured. The plain one is marked by its round neck, buttons on the right ( dajin ) and U-shaped cuffs. This hemmed robe has inner lapels and long slits in the middle of the front and back. It mainly uses soft satin cloth of purple, red, black, green, blue, etc. Sometimes, it is also made of cyan cloth, worn by bailiffs in a  yamen  (government office in feudal China), for example, Diao Nanlou in  The South Chamber  and the bailiffs in  The Story of Selling Horses .  The coloured archer robe resembles the plain one, except for its additional triangle-shaped collar, waist band, buckles and other ornaments. The edges of its lapel, neck and slit are all trimmed with two-inch wide lace embellished with small floral patterns. Important parts including the chest and the back are embroidered with big flowers in round frame. Colours including pink, light green, white, black, green, purple and red are widely used for this type. In the Act “Assigning Tasks” of  The Phoenix Mountain , for example, Jiang Huayou wears a light green archer robe and La Huazuo wears a pink one.

Archer Robe  Costume,  a flimsy military uniform. There two types of arrow robes: plain and coloured. The plain one is marked by its round neck, buttons on the right (dajin) and U-shaped cuffs. This hemmed robe has inner lapels and long slits in the middle of the front and back. It mainly uses soft satin cloth of purple, red, black, green, blue, etc. Sometimes, it is also made of cyan cloth, worn by bailiffs in a yamen (government office in feudal China), for example, Diao Nanlou in The South Chamber and the bailiffs in The Story of Selling Horses.

The coloured archer robe resembles the plain one, except for its additional triangle-shaped collar, waist band, buckles and other ornaments. The edges of its lapel, neck and slit are all trimmed with two-inch wide lace embellished with small floral patterns. Important parts including the chest and the back are embroidered with big flowers in round frame. Colours including pink, light green, white, black, green, purple and red are widely used for this type. In the Act “Assigning Tasks” of The Phoenix Mountain, for example, Jiang Huayou wears a light green archer robe and La Huazuo wears a pink one.

 
   
  
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    Mang,  also known as mangpao, is the court wear for emperors and officials with big lapels and round collars. It consists of back and front pieces, under flies, sleeves, water sleeves, extensions,shuaijian, and belts. Mang has a length of 4.4 chi (1.46m) with 3.2chi-long sleeves(1.5m). It is divided into two types (luanlong mang, dalong mang) according to the embroidered patterns. Nanmang is for male roles and Numang is for female roles. Based on colors, Mang could be divided into two groups, five inferior colors for one group and five superior colors for the other group. The status, characters and theatrical roles are considerations for choosing specific colors and the types of mang. Mang is generally known as “longpao”,but in fact there are nuances: The dragon in longpao is five-clawed, but in mang it has only four. 

Mang,  also known as mangpao, is the court wear for emperors and officials with big lapels and round collars. It consists of back and front pieces, under flies, sleeves, water sleeves, extensions,shuaijian, and belts. Mang has a length of 4.4 chi (1.46m) with 3.2chi-long sleeves(1.5m). It is divided into two types (luanlong mang, dalong mang) according to the embroidered patterns. Nanmang is for male roles and Numang is for female roles. Based on colors, Mang could be divided into two groups, five inferior colors for one group and five superior colors for the other group. The status, characters and theatrical roles are considerations for choosing specific colors and the types of mang. Mang is generally known as “longpao”,but in fact there are nuances: The dragon in longpao is five-clawed, but in mang it has only four. 

 
   
  
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     Qing su  (sufu  )   Guan yi in blue,  black or Aquamarine. It is also named as Sufu. Qing su has no Buzi (the rectangle embroidery on front and back chest), and is worn by roles like menguan.      

Qing su(sufu  Guan yi in blue,  black or Aquamarine. It is also named as Sufu. Qing su has no Buzi (the rectangle embroidery on front and back chest), and is worn by roles like menguan.  

 

  White Floral Skirt  Costume.  There are two types: narrow pleated floral skirt which has a hundred pleats, and wide pleated floral skirt which has much less pleats. Either the front or the back has a piece of smooth cloth (i.e. “horse face”), and is embroidered with a flower in round frame or scattered flowers at the frontal center. It is around three feet long and is edged with floral patterns. Thick white crape is used for this skirt. It is typically worn by the unmarried young girl, such as Du Li-niang in  The Peony Pavillion .

White Floral Skirt  Costume. There are two types: narrow pleated floral skirt which has a hundred pleats, and wide pleated floral skirt which has much less pleats. Either the front or the back has a piece of smooth cloth (i.e. “horse face”), and is embroidered with a flower in round frame or scattered flowers at the frontal center. It is around three feet long and is edged with floral patterns. Thick white crape is used for this skirt. It is typically worn by the unmarried young girl, such as Du Li-niang in The Peony Pavillion.

 
  Cloak  Costume.   The cloak runs down to the feet and have an attached hood. It may have a small round neck and buttons down the front ( duijin ). But sometimes, the mandarin collar with a small button and a pair of ribbons may also be applied to cloaks. Almost all cloaks (including the hood) are embroidered with patterns of sea waves, two big dragons, luminous pearl and clouds. The only exception is the big red cloak, which does not have embroidered patterns at all. Colors like red, green and yellow are commonly used for cloaks. Women’s cloaks have more colours and typically embroidered with flowers such as phoenix, peony, chrysanthemum, or embellished with butterflies and birds. When characters are going outside or traveling, they often put on cloaks to protect themselves from the cold, rain or wind.  Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Chen yuanli and Gao Lishi wear yellow, red and yellow men’s cloak respectively in  The Palace of Eternal Youth ; and Du Liniang wears a woman’s cloak in  The Peony Pavilion .

Cloak  Costume.  The cloak runs down to the feet and have an attached hood. It may have a small round neck and buttons down the front (duijin). But sometimes, the mandarin collar with a small button and a pair of ribbons may also be applied to cloaks. Almost all cloaks (including the hood) are embroidered with patterns of sea waves, two big dragons, luminous pearl and clouds. The only exception is the big red cloak, which does not have embroidered patterns at all. Colors like red, green and yellow are commonly used for cloaks. Women’s cloaks have more colours and typically embroidered with flowers such as phoenix, peony, chrysanthemum, or embellished with butterflies and birds. When characters are going outside or traveling, they often put on cloaks to protect themselves from the cold, rain or wind.

Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Chen yuanli and Gao Lishi wear yellow, red and yellow men’s cloak respectively in The Palace of Eternal Youth; and Du Liniang wears a woman’s cloak in The Peony Pavilion.

 
  Longtao yi   Theatrical costume worn by attendants (longtao). It has symmetrical opening with long collar band,top sleeves and water sleeves. And the fungus-shaped arabesque finishes the top of the center back slit, with undulant borders. Besides, the neckline, cuffs, edges of the opening in the front and back slit are all hemmed with colorful bands with motifs of acient coins, flowers, dragons and geometrical patterns. Several dragons are embroidered on the sleeves, front and back piece along with clouds and sea waves. Longtao usually come in groups of four as the guards. They process on stage carrying banners at the battle scene to present a strong army. the color is selected to match or harmonize with the principle roles they serve. The Red robe is called "hong longtao", white called "bai longtao".

Longtao yi  Theatrical costume worn by attendants (longtao). It has symmetrical opening with long collar band,top sleeves and water sleeves. And the fungus-shaped arabesque finishes the top of the center back slit, with undulant borders. Besides, the neckline, cuffs, edges of the opening in the front and back slit are all hemmed with colorful bands with motifs of acient coins, flowers, dragons and geometrical patterns. Several dragons are embroidered on the sleeves, front and back piece along with clouds and sea waves. Longtao usually come in groups of four as the guards. They process on stage carrying banners at the battle scene to present a strong army. the color is selected to match or harmonize with the principle roles they serve. The Red robe is called "hong longtao", white called "bai longtao".

 
   
  
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   Numang    theatrical clothing.  Numang is for female roles with a knee length. The back piece has no extensions(bai)。Yunjian is also worn along with numang. Seawaves are embroidered in the lower part of yunjian, and phoenix with peonies often appear in the upper part. Numang is often worn by empress.

Numang   theatrical clothing.  Numang is for female roles with a knee length. The back piece has no extensions(bai)。Yunjian is also worn along with numang. Seawaves are embroidered in the lower part of yunjian, and phoenix with peonies often appear in the upper part. Numang is often worn by empress.

 
   
  
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     Nupei      One type of   Pei.   It has symmetrical opening with long collar band, and water sleeves up to about 2.8 feet long. It shares other features with nu kanjian. It’s the robe for Dan roles, such as Du Liniang from the  Peony Pavilion.

Nupei   One type of   Pei.   It has symmetrical opening with long collar band, and water sleeves up to about 2.8 feet long. It shares other features with nu kanjian. It’s the robe for Dan roles, such as Du Liniang from the Peony Pavilion.

 
   
  
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     Bagua yi    a type of costume worn by Taoists. It has skew collar and water sleeves, without extensions of the back piece. The hems and cuffs are slightly wavy. The garment has a band of matching fabric applied to the waist and two streamers that fall from center front to the full length. The borders are couched with geometrical design of Chinese Characters or flowering vines. The pattern of the eight trigrams arranged around the surface, along with yin and yang symbols on the front and back chest. Bagua yi is usually purple, black or dark blue. It is the common clothes for Taoists and military counselors. Zhang Liang from  Qianjinji  wears bagua yi.

Bagua yi   a type of costume worn by Taoists. It has skew collar and water sleeves, without extensions of the back piece. The hems and cuffs are slightly wavy. The garment has a band of matching fabric applied to the waist and two streamers that fall from center front to the full length. The borders are couched with geometrical design of Chinese Characters or flowering vines. The pattern of the eight trigrams arranged around the surface, along with yin and yang symbols on the front and back chest. Bagua yi is usually purple, black or dark blue. It is the common clothes for Taoists and military counselors. Zhang Liang from Qianjinji wears bagua yi.